1. Health
Send to a Friend via Email

Sleep Deprivation and Athletes

Research finds a lack of sleep may reduce sports recovery and perfromance

By

Updated September 04, 2013

Sleep deprivation reduces sports performance

Sleep deprivation reduces sports performance

(c) Thinkstock Images / Getty Images
Most athletes would agree that getting enough sleep is important for optimal sports performance, but until recently this was just a theory without much evidence to back it up. But now researchers are discovering just how much sleep deprivation can impact athletic performance. Sleep reserachers are discovering that sleep deprivation can have a big impact on our basic metabolism and not getting enough sleep slows glucose metabolism by as much as 30 to 40 percent.

Eve Van Cauter, Ph.D., from the University of Chicago Medical School, studied the effects of three different durations of sleep in eleven men aged 18 to 27. For the first three nights of the study, the men slept eight hours per night; for the next six nights, they slept four hours per night; for the last seven nights, they slept 12 hours per night.

Results showed that after four hours of sleep per night (the sleep deprivation period), they metabolized glucose least efficiently. Levels of cortisol (a stress hormone) were also higher during sleep deprivation periods, which has been linked to memory impairment, age-related insulin resistance, and impaired recovery in athletes.

Van Cauter said that after only one week of sleep restriction, young, healthy males had glucose levels that were no longer normal and showed a rapid deterioration of the body's functions. This reduced ability of the body to manage glucose is similar to those found in the elderly.

Most of what we know about sleep deprivation has to do with immune function and brain function. This study is interesting because it shows that sleep deprivation can negatively impact physiology that is critical for athletic performance -- glucose metabolism and cortisol status. While no one completely understands the complexities of sleep, this (and other research) indicates that sleep deprivation can lead to increased levels of cortisol (a stress hormone), decreased activity of human growth hormone (which is active during tissue repair), and decreased glycogen synthesis.

Other studies link sleep deprivation with decreased aerobic endurance and increased ratings of perceived exertion.

What does this all mean?

Glucose and glycogen (stored glucose) are the main sources of energy for athletes. Being able to store glucose in muscle and the liver is particularly important for endurance athletes. Those who are sleep deprived may experience slower storage of glycogen, which prevents storage of the fuel an athlete needs for endurance events beyond 90 minutes.

Elevated levels of cortisol may interfere with tissue repair and growth. Over time, this could prevent an athlete from responding to heavy training and lead to overtraining and injury.

Obviously, more research is necessary. But this study indicates that a chronic lack of sleep may affect metabolic function. For the endurance athlete, proper sleep during heavy training and before competitions certainly may help and is unlikely to cause harm.

Why Athletes Need Rest and Recovery

It is the alternation of adaptation and recovery that takes the athlete to a higher level of fitness. High-level athletes need to realize that the greater the training intensity and effort, the greater the need for planned recovery. Monitoring your workouts with a training log, and paying attention to how your body feels and how motivated you are is extremely helpful in determining your recovery needs and modifying your training program accordingly.

Other helpful ways to get enough rest without taking days off include:

Source

Spiegel, Leproult and Van Cauter, Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function. The Lancet (1999;354:1435-1439).

©2014 About.com. All rights reserved.

We comply with the HONcode standard
for trustworthy health
information: verify here.