Glossary of Sports Medicine Terminology - Index
C.P.R.: Cardiopulmonary Rususcitation; artificial establishment of circulation of blood and movement of air into the lungs in a pulseless, non-breathing person.
Calcaneofibular Ligament: The ligament that connects the fibula to the calcaneous.
Calf: Large muscle located at the back of the shin that includes the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscles and is connected to the heel by the Achilles tendon. This is responsible for foot plantarflexion and is instrumental in jumping.
Capsule: An enclosing structure which surrounds the joint and contains ligaments shich stabilize that joint.
Cartilage: Smooth, slippery substance preventing two ends of bones from rubbing together and grating.
CAT Scan: An imaging technique that uses a computer to organize the information from multiple x-ray views and construct a cross-sectional image of areas inside the body. Also called computerized axial tomography (CAT) or CT scan.
Cellulitis: Inflammation of cellular or connective tissue.
Cervical Vertabrae: Group of seven vertabrae located in the neck.
Charley Horse: A contusion or bruise to any muscle resulting in intramuscular bleeding. No other injury should be called a charley horse.
Chondral Fracture: Fracture to the chondral (cartillaginous) surfaces of bone.
Chondromalacia: Roughening of the articular cartilage. Best known for the roughening of the underside of the patella, which can occur in any patellofemoral injury.
Chronic: Of long duration, often years; recurring; opposite of Acute.
Clavicle: The collar bone.
Coccyx: The "tail bone;" a group of four vertabrae that are fused together, located at the terminal end of the spine.
Cold Pack: A pack of natural or synthetic ice that is applied to any injury in order to minimize blood flow in the area to control the injury.
Collagen Substance: Existing in commonly injured tissues of the body, including skin, cartilage, ligaments and bone.
Collateral Ligament: On either side of, and acting as a radius of movement of, a hinge joint, as of the elbow, knee and wrist.
Colles Fracture: A fracture of the distal end of the radium with the lower end being displaced backward.
Compartment Syndorome: A build up of pressure in muscles.
Complex Carbohydrate : A substance that contains several sugar units linked together, such as starch.
Computed Tomography (CT): Method of visualizing the body's soft tissues. Using x-rays with the beam passing repeatedly thorugh the body part, the CT scans while a compurter calculates tissue absorption at each point scanned.
Concentric Muscle Contraction: A shortening of the muscle as it develops tension and contracts to move a resistance.
Concussion: Jarring injury of the brain resulting in dysfuntion. It can be graded as mild, moderate or severe depending on loss of consciousness, amnesia and loss of equilibrium.
Congenital: Existing before birth; to be born with.
Conjunctivitis: Inflammation of the membrane lining the eyelids and covering the eyeball.
Connective Tissue: A material consisting of fibers that form a framework that provides support structure for body tissues.
Contract: To shorten a muscle body.
Contractures: Abnormal, usually permanent contraction of a muscle due to atrophy of muscle fibers, extensive scar tissue over a joint, or other factors.
Contusion: An injury to a muscle and tissues caused by a blow from a blunt object, typically resulting in a bruise.
Coronary Artery Disease : Narrowing or blockage of one or more of the coronary arteries resulting in decreased blood supply to the heart (ischemia). Also called Ischemic Heart Disease.
Coronary Disease : Damage to the heart when insufficient blood flows through the vessels because they are blocked with fat or have become thick and hard; this harms the muscles of the heart.
Cortical Steriods: Used to suppress joint inflammation.
Cortisol: The major natural glucocorticoid (GC) in humans. It is the primary stress hormone
Cortisone: A steroid hormone that is used to treat many autoimmune or inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis.
Costochondral: Cartilage that separates the bones within the rib cage.
CPM: Constant passive motion devices used in the early stage of knee rehabilitation.
CPR: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Combined artifical ventilation and cardiac massage technique for reviving a person whose heart and breathing have stopped and who is unconscious.
Cramps: A painful, involuntary spasmodic contraction.
Cranium: Bony framework of the head consisting of eight cranial bones, 14 bones of the face and the teeth.
Cruciate: A cross or "X" shape. There are two cruciate ligaments in the human knee.
Cryokinetics: Treatment with cold and movement.
Cryotherapy: A treatment with use of cold.
Cyst: Abnormal sac containing liquid or semi-solid matter.