Glossary of Sports Medicine Terminology
SC Joint: Sternoclavicular joint; articulation of the collarbone with the sternum.
Sacroiliac: Junction of the sacrum with the hip bone.
Sacrum: Group of five fused vertebrae located just below the lumbar vertebrae of the low back.
Scapula: Shoulder blade.
Sciatica: Irritation of the sciatic nerve resulting in pain or tingling running down the inside of the leg.
Sciatic Nerve: Major nerve that carries impulses for muscular action and sensations between the low back and thigh and lower leg; it is the longest nerve in the body.
Shin Splint: A catch-all syndrome describing pain in the shin that is not a fracture or tumor and cannot be defined otherwise.
Soft Corn: A corn, softened by moisture, that is found beneath the toes rather than on the upper surface of the toe.
Sorbothane: An energy absorbing polyurethane utilized in some foot orthotics to absorb shock forces of the foot.
Spasm Theory: Muscle soreness induced by exercise; is the result of reduced muscle blood flow, which results in pain.
Spinous Process: A small projection off the posterior portion of each vertebrae that functions as an attachment site for muscles or ligaments of the spine.
Spleen: Large, solid organ responsible for the normal production and destruction of blood cells.
Spondylitis: Inflammation of one or more vertebrae.
Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of one vertebrae over another below it due to a developmental defect in the vertebrae.
Spondylosis: Abnormal vertebral fixation or immobility.
Sports Psychology: A science that deals with the mental and emotional aspects of physical performance.
Sprain: Injury resulting from the stetch or twist of the joint and causes various degrees of stretch of tear of a ligament or other soft tissue at the joint.
Sternum: The breast bone.
Steroids: Any one of a large number of hormone-like substances. See anabolic steroids and cortical steroids.
Strain: Injury resulting from a pull or torsion to the muscle or tendon that causes various degrees of stretch or tear to the muscle or tendon tissue.
Stress Fracture: A hair-line type of break in a bone caused by overuse.
Stress X-Ray: A continual x-ray taken when a portion of the body is stressed to its maximum in order to determine joint stability. This is a test utilized in some ankle injuries.
Stretching: Any therapeutic maneuver designed to elongate shortened soft tissue structures and thereby increase flexibility.
Subluxation: Partial dislocation of a joint. The term usually implies that the joint can return to its normal position without formal reduction.
Superior: In anatomy, the upper of two parts; toward the top or above.
Supination: Movement of the forearm into a palm-up position.
Synovial Fluid: Lubricating fluid for joints and tendons, produced in synovium, or the inner lining of a joint.
Synovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a joint.
Systole: The portion of the heart cycle during which the heart muscle is contracting.
Systolic Blood Pressure: The highest blood pressure produced by the contraction of the heart. Recorded as the first number in your blood pressure measurement.