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Preventing Altitude Illness and Acute Mountain Sickness

Tips for Exercising at High Altitude

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Updated April 16, 2014

Active vacations are becoming increasingly popular and many flatlanders take high altitude trips every year. If you train at low altitude and plan to exercise at high altitude, there are some tips and precautions you might want to heed.

The main concerns for those who travel to altitude to exercise include the following:

Decreased Availability of Oxygen

As you move from sea level to higher altitude the air pressure decreases and your ability to easily take in oxygen is reduced. Because it is harder to get oxygen to your lungs, you compensate by increasing your breathing rate, depth and heart rate. Until you acclimate you may find that what you can easily do at home is more difficult at altitude.

Dehydration

While the reduced availability of oxygen is the primary reason that exercising at altitude is more difficult, another factor that reduces performance and causes altitude illness is dehydration. The lower humidity and increased breathing rate at altitude cause you to lose more moisture with every exhalation than at sea level. Even a slight loss of fluid (2-3 pounds of water lost through sweating and even breathing) can result in a notable decrease in athletic performance. Also See: Hydrating for Exercise

Dehydration is a culprit in most cases of acute mountain sickness. Symptoms such as headache, mild dizziness, nausea, insomnia, and irritability can indicate dehydration and should not be ignored. In many cases problems can be prevented by taking simple precautions. If you plan to travel to, and exercise at altitude you should hydrate well by drinking before you feel thirsty. Avoid alcohol and caffeine because they are diuretics that can lead to dehydration.

Heat Illness

Summer in the mountains may not always be cooler than at low elevations. Heat illness falls into several categories including heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. Heat Stroke is a medical emergency. It strikes suddenly and with little warning. Signs of heat stroke can include a core body temperature above 105 degree F, hot, dry skin, a very fast pulse, and confusion or disorientation. Stopping activity and cooling the body are the key treatments for heat exhaustion.

Heat cramps are painful muscles spasms along with faintness/dizziness/weakness. They usually develop after several hours of exertion and sodium (and other electrolyte) depletion. Replacing lost electrolytes and fluids is usually the best treatment.

Increased Sun Exposure

Direct sun exposure at altitude adds to the effects of dehydration, and can lead to serious sunburns. Sunburns occur more easily at altitude (especially for the fair-skinned) and sunburn can lower the skin's ability to cool itself.

To protect from the effects of sun exposure, avoid exercising when the sun is at its most intense (from 11-2pm). If you are out in the middle of the day, protect yourself with appropriate clothing, sun block (spf 30 +) and sunglasses.

Also See: Recommended Sport Sunglasses

Altitude Illness | Acute Mountain Sickness

Above 8,000 feet (2,424 m), many vacationers suffer from altitude illness. There are varying degrees of illness and the most common is altitude sickness or acute mountain sickness (AMS).

Acute Mountain Sickness. For those who get AMS, it generally occurs between 6,000 and 10,000 feet and causes mild symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea and poor sleep. Symptoms often clear up in a day or two, but if they don't you may need to go to a lower altitude until you feel better. Going from low elevation to high elevation quickly will increase your odds of feeling altitude illness.

Other, less common types of altitude illness include high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Symptoms of HAPE include difficulty breathing, chest tightness, cough and fatigue. Symptoms of HACE include confusion, lack of coordination, stumbling and poor balance. Both of these conditions occur most often over 10,000 feet and are serious conditions that require immediate medical attention.

How To Prevent High Altitude Illness

  • Move to higher altitudes gradually. Give your body time to acclimate and adjust. After 8000 feet, ascend no more than 1000 feet per day.
  • If you have a headache, or lack of coordination or other symptoms of altitude illness don't go any higher.
  • If possible, sleep at a lower altitude than you are at during the day.
  • Ask your doctor if medications for altitude illness (acetazolamide (Diamox, Dazamide)) would be helpful for you.
  • Carry rain gear/warm clothing because mountain weather can change quickly.
  • Drink plenty of liquids while exercising (16-32 oz/hour or more in hotter weather).
  • Wear light colored clothes that wick moisture, like Cool-Max.
  • Use sunscreen to help prevent sunburn.
  • If you feel your performance drop quickly, rest and try to cool off.
  • Do not drink alcohol/caffeine before or immediately after exercising at altitude.

    Keep in mind that it is easier to prevent many altitude related symptoms than to treat them once they develop.

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